Jared Rutter (U. Utah, HHMI) 1: Mitochondria: The Mysterious Cellular Parasite


Dr. Jared Rutter shares new insights into the interplay between mitochondria, metabolism, and cellular behavior.

Mitochondria are integral to the metabolism of eukaryotic cells, yet many of their properties are not fully understood. In Part 1 of this iBioSeminar, Dr. Jared Rutter lays out the foundational knowledge of mitochondrial structure and origin, and shares what is currently known about mitochondrial roles in metabolism, protein homeostasis, and signaling. He ends by highlighting a focus of his research group: to unravel the functions of uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins.

In Part 2 of his talk, Rutter describes his group’s work to unravel the relationship between the activity of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC) and the behavior of numerous cell types, including cancer and stem cells. His group found that forced expression of the MPC in multiple stem cell models led to reduced “stemness” and proliferative capacity, and that MPC inhibition could promote organoid formation in culture and tumor formation in vivo. These data indicate an important link between mitochondria, metabolism, and cell behavior.

In his Part 3, Rutter emphasizes the challenge of mitochondrial protein synthesis. How do the components of the electron transport chain (ETC) assemble in the right stoichiometry at the right time? Rutter introduces the LYR family of proteins, which aid assembly of ETC components. LYR proteins interact with a common binding partner, the acyl carrier protein (ACP), via a unique fatty acyl moiety on ACP. Rutter’s group showed that ACP acylation is necessary for assembly of the ETC and activation of oxidative phosphorylation.

Speaker Biography:
Jared Rutter is a Professor of Biochemistry and holds the Dee Glen and Ida Smith Endowed Chair for Cancer Research at the University of Utah. Dr. Rutter received his PhD from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in 2001, working with Dr. Steve McKnight. After receiving his PhD, he spent 18 months as the Sara and Frank McKnight Independent Fellow of Biochemistry before joining the faculty at the University of Utah. As of September 2015, Dr. Rutter is an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In addition to leading his laboratory at the University of Utah, Dr. Rutter is also actively involved in translating these academic discoveries into therapies as a founder, consultant and board member of several companies and venture firms. Dr. Rutter also serves as co-Director of the Diabetes and Metabolism Center at the University of Utah and co-Leader of the Nuclear Control of Cell Growth and Differentiation at Huntsman Cancer Institute.


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Comment (212)

  1. No way did something this complex evolve from nothing. This is a complex machine, driven by chemical bonding formulas the likes of which we are just beginning to even 'see'. This video, to be sure, is an cartoon compared to the real machine, which makes up the core of the mitochondria. We are machines in our own living cells. The mitochondria is just one of them. All of the functions of the rest of the cell are the same way. Complex machines made from biological material. No way did a machine as complex as a living cell evolve from nothing.

  2. "mitochondria are normally inherited exclusively from the mother; . … The fact that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited enables genealogical researchers to trace maternal lineage far back in time.:

  3. Going from ADP to ATP requires the same energy as is released going from ATP to ADP. What is the mechanism that assembles ATP from ADP? What triggers ATP to release a "P" and become ADP? How does that released "P" do work ? Does it boing off a membrane and do mechanical work or does the release of the "P" create a local temperature hot enough to make steam which drives a mechanism? Is the activation energy going from ADP to ATP the same as going from ATP to ADP & "P"? what manages "P"? Is any electron/proton tunneling involved?
    The lecture represents countless hours of human effort. Yet without an explanation of the investigate techniques used to invent this model and verify its' correctness, one may as well memorize the phone book. How about a lecture demonstrating the techniques used to come up with and verify a model for just one step in the metabolic process?

  4. This is pure robotic work with clear programmed instructions to make this sophisticated factory of mechanical, chemical and electrical harmony, the more I learn about the cell, the more I want to meet the creator of these genius machines

  5. This is very nice and informative talk. Sir i have couple of questions regarding the ETS. My question is "how many numbers of electron transport system present in a single mitochondrion?". & next question is "how mitochondria sense about their homeostasis and decided to go for mitophagy."

  6. This is a great presentation and makes me understand what "Mitocods' are and how they work. I however wonder how this component of cell life and many other like it are as a result of evolution you are presenting them to us. Do you mean that the coding, programming, algorithm, precision and purposefulness, replicability displayed in these processes all happened by random chance. Do mean information processing procedure displayed in living cells all started by random chance and mutation. So information can emerge from the blues, coded and programmed and launched without designer and programmer? Please explain in a convincing way.

  7. His slide on the origins of the mitochondria is likely wrong. The most convincing evidence is pegging the host as a simple archaeon. Check out Bill Martin’s hydrogen hypothesis and Nick Lane’s book Power, Sex, Suicide.

  8. Hi, I’m a medical student and biology is one of our studies. There is one thing that is quite different to what we have learned from our biology professor and Campbell’s Biology ver. 11th. From 4:51 to 5:00 in this video, would you mind to provide any information or proof to show that the inner membrane of mitochondrial is indeed completely sealed and is impenetrable ?

  9. If a mitochondria was once a bacterium that was ingested by a eukaryote, can you speculate on the environment that it evolved in and the tolerances of that extracelular environment including chemical, thermal, Ph, biologic and electromagnetic? Also, how would their presence modify or contribute to that environment?

  10. Thank you Dr. Rutter for a very cogent and lucid video. I'm only a lay person and wondering about Omeprasol, a proton pump inhibitor, or "PPI" as medical people say. Can 11 years of taking Omeprasol cause ongoing problems with the Mitochondrion maybe not replicating as well? I had multitudes of cysts (benign) in my stomach. Two years ago cysts 2cm and larger were removed, many. My GI specialist at Mayo Clinic said he started seeing cases like mine once the "PPI's" came along. Being 66 yrs old, I take that into account, but every day there is a time where I have to take a nap or I'm very weak. I wonder if maybe my mitochondrion do not replicate as they use to and even though I'm off Omeprasol I have lower energy levels at times. Could that be true?

  11. 3:10 he says: "Quite clear that mitochondria evolved from aerobic bacteria entering cells"
    I don't know how was it clear and he never witnessed it or synthesized it in lab" also what a stupid bacteria it is aerobic and decides to go inside a cell which is anaerobic location to play and dance, I only would understand if it went to lungs or sinuses or nose and played there with oxygen it needs the most

  12. It's really sad that this channel was forced to turn comments off on some other vids due to the religious fundamentalist fanatics that can't accept that their holy books creation story is pure myth. Truly sad. Great channel, and great insights into things I didn't really understand. I appreciate the work you guys put into this channel.

  13. Oke, why does my body feels suddenly like a universe itself.. or how should the body of the universe look like?? 0:)

    Much love from Sadé from the netherlands!

  14. The question that boggles the mind of everybody in the know is I guess – what kind of an intelligence and how are those complexes, structures created. Not only what are the running processes, but who are the builders?

  15. Every time there is talk about electron transport chain or electron carrying molecules – what don`t you use the language of generating electric current, and ATP – making batteries.

  16. Why isn`t it told that every organelle has its own brain and consciousness ! Who is doing to the talking between the organelles. It is like an energy market. The talking is done by though! They are thinking! But no scientist is willing to say this.

  17. Fantastic video, thank you! One minor note, I think @15:144 he accidentally switched matrix and intramembrane space. You switched the audio, but not the captions. Would you mind editing the captions as well?

  18. How does highly intelligent people believe in evolution? Humans are so complex that it's quite obvious that we have an intelligent creator who designed the blueprints for all life forms . I do understand that some people does not want any entity higher than themselves, and they cannot comprehend the idea of a God , but I cannot comprehend the idea that all of this nearly perfect world was created from a cell , or some squiggly thing ? lol There's no evidence of evolution whatsoever, something cannot come from nothing, and billions and billions of years does not equal intelligence. What do you need to construct a house , you need blueprints, because even after 100 years, or a million years , you would still not have a house , so without blueprints we wouldn't have this world . Please be more humble and less arrogant !!

  19. Ok, this may seem utterly irrelevant, but… Why do these biological models look like factories?

    I am becoming better at understanding why these chemical, biological, and physical models in science feel and seem like frankly religious models of whatever science topic is spoken of.

    Why are science lecturers putting forth mechanical factory-like models of phenomenon they speak of?


  20. Brilliant clarity even for a layperson like myself, I read the comments below , I agree with all. We are the Universe the same building blocks used incredibly creative.
    It leads to one thought, the incredible wonderful complexity is all involuntary, can you imagine if it was voluntary, us humans introducing democracy to the cells and give them choice. As in time we are absurd enough to introduce democracy to the Bee hive. Guaranteeing very little homey will ever be produced and honey will be become the new currency like bit coin for the super rich.
    This presentation teaches us understand it fix it if need be but leave by and large ‘ Well Enough ‘ alone.
    As species we underwrite our own epitaph. Mars here we come.

  21. Do you think that this is proof of a creator or is it just the "happy" accidents that happen over billions of years when chemical elements come together to create molecules and these molecules create little machines to make life. I still haven't given up on GOD as i think the universe was created (by something we still don't understand) at the big bang to use the elements created in stars to create beings to understand the universe itself. I really would like to know the answer but i guess enough atoms and enough time can create sentient beings like us !

  22. How would the mitochondria do the 10 functions a cell must do: energy production, selective gateways, active transport, information processing, manufacturing, auto assembly, automated repair, sensors, signal processing algorithm, actuators, control systems, central coordination !
    And how did the host cell produce energy before a mitochondria was present ?

  23. I can appreciate your knowledge of biology. BUT how can you definitively say, " it's clear that mitochondria evolved….. " when you moments before said that we still have much to learn about the biology of mitochondria? I will have to say that The creation of life is better explained by The spoken word of The Lord creating it as The Bible tells us He did.

  24. They are implementing a policy in at least one university called research justice. They are refusing the work of any White person. If this spreads no white person will ever participate in science or any academics again. Look it up you foolish liberal, this is what all of your protesting and marching has done to the country!

  25. This is probably one of the most confusing presentations of how mitochondria work, that I've seen. When slides are jam packed with information and quickly presented with not much explanation, it just becomes gobbledygook.

  26. wooow I am amazed of these results, we are basically made of microscopic machines, advanced nanotechnology, motors and even microscopic meshes!!!! also the way the DNA and RNA is composed, literarily it is programmed!!! and we are learning how to assemble these machines, design them and re-program them!!!

  27. I protest your calling mitochondria as a parasite! It is wholy female in origin and controlled by the subconscious mind, also female in nature. It is directed by the male conscious mind…

  28. Mitochondria, living proof of intelligent design… Can someone explain how the original cell which ingested the mitochondria, was able to replicate another exact version of itself, that also included another mitochondrion inside! 
    All cells have their own unique DNA which is the code needed to replicate 'perfect'' copies of themselves, usually via mitosis. The original cells DNA would not contain the complex genetic information needed to make a copy of a mitochondrion,,, so when the original cell replicated itself, the exact replica would not have contained any mitochondria! 
    The cells in this video arrived in the fossil record as is, with the mitochondria present and the ability to replicate them, this can only mean that the cell had to 'spontaneously evolve' with the genetic code necessary for it to be able to replicate itself with mitochondria organelles inside.
    Evolutionists seem to be relying on miracles to perpetuate their 'theory'.

    Mitochondria defy all logic and could not have 'evolved'. 
    Go to 17.30 in this video and look at the chart, then realise how utterly mind bogglingly complex all those chemical processes are. How can we be expected to believe that a mitochondrion simply 'evolved' the ability to carry out all those complex chemical processes, when it had no need to? Try replicating any of those processes from scratch in a lab and it would take decades to get the sequences right. 
    Further more, none of those processes are needed for the mitochondria to survive on its own, nor do any of them offer an evolutionary 'advantages' to a mitochondria's survival (unless it is in a host). So why/how did the mitochondria 'evolve' to be able to produce ATP etc and what was the point? Only when a mitochondria is inside another living cell, do the chemical processes it is capable of performing become of any use, and even then, those processes are only useful to the symbiont, not the mitochondrion!

    People need to look past Darwin, they've been trying to make the theory work for a hundred years and cannot do so, intelligent design is the most plausible explanation, what are people afraid of. If you can conceive the possibility of a multiverse, intelligent design is much easier to believe.

    Most people commenting on here have no understanding of evolution beyond what they were taught in a few minutes of dinosaur lessons at kindergarten, this does not give them any ability to make informed decisions, or statements of fact about evolution whatsoever! You know nothing and are being mislead.

    True scientists need to have open minds, do the research, listen to Dr Steven Meyer or Gunter Bechly on here and you will see Darwins theory is still only that, just a theory, the very vaguest hypothesis that can easily be disproved by true scientists, it is certainly far from the truth! 

    This entire video demonstrates one of the biggest failings of the so called 'theory' of evolution, as it totally overlooks the most crucial questions, how something as complex as a mitochondria could have possibly evolved in the first place from a few chemicals. The cell membrane itself is talked about as though it is a simple single layer of substance when even the simplest of membranes is a highly specialised structure, with multiple functions, such things cannot simply 'appear'.

    A mitochondrion is also far from a simple cell, it is a highly complex and specialised organelle, it did not and could not 'evolve' to be able to do all those chemical processes. According the fossil record mitochondria spontaneously appeared, with all the incredible biochemical abilities it is capable of, a miracle…

    Evolution is relying on miracles, it has to be, because it is cannot explain the complexities in design or function of even the most basic single cells or proteins. Proteins are not a few amino acids clumped together, they have design, and are highly complex machines that with specific functions and purposes!  

    We still know nothing about evolution and scientists are not looking in the right place. 
    Life had to have been created here on Earth, or it was seeded here from somewhere else, then the question has to be, how did it evolve in the very beginning. Intelligent design is the only logical explanation at the moment! 
    This is clearly seen by the spontaneous appearance of mitochondria in the fossil record, an event that is even more significant than the spontaneous arrivals of other fully formed creatures, as seen in the Cambrian and other 5 similar explosions.

  29. Would it be possible to modify the mitochondira to accept electrons from a metal wire instead of using NADH ? This way all cell could be powered without nutrients but with pure electricity. Is there any research on that ? 🙂 Just curious.

  30. Nothing shows intelligent design like the mitochondria. Filled with turbine engines producing power.

    The religion of evolution is really reaching here.


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