How the Europeans fought the Mongols – Medieval History DOCUMENTARY

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The Kings and Generals animated historical documentary series on Mongol History continues with a video explaining how the Europeans planned to fight and fought against Mongols.

Our podcast on Mongol history –
How the Mongol Empire Fell –
How the Mongols Became Muslim –
Why the Mongols Tolerated Other Religions –
Rabban Bar Sauma: Adventures of Mongol Marco Polo –
Mongol Army – Tactics, Logistics, Siegecraft, Recruitment –
Is Genghis Khan Ancestor of the Millions? –
What is the Truth about Tartaria:
Previous videos in our series on Mongol history –

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The video was made by Galang Pinandita, while the script was developed by Jack Wilson – The Jackmeister. Check out his channel dedicated to the history of the Mongols: This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

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Comment (1,656)

  1. Basically almost the same as battling the Huns (or any nomadic eastern invader for that matter): you don't.

    At least not until you can force a pitched battle and take away their key advantages (I.e, Battle of the Catalaunian Fields).

  2. Putin is fighting like a Mongol now in 2022 and if the holy Roman empire would have done more to stop the Mongols in the 13th century they could have been pushed back all the way to present day Mongolia

  3. KG, if Latins were able to crush time and time again Seljuk cavalry even in the 11th-12th century that was equipped and use similar tactics as Mongols in the 13th, why would be European heavy cavalry, better equipped than their grand-grandfathers so ineffectual under the right circumstances, I wonder?

  4. Great video! A good example of what a mess Europe was in that era. There is a band called "The Hu" that plays a mix of traditional Mongol music and modern rock metal. They are on YouTube, worth a look and a listen. Their music videos depict medieval Mongol life and they also can cook!

  5. I wonder how the Mongols would have fared against Alexander Bey (Skanderbeg) and the League of Lezhe. It took their cousins, the Ottoman Turks, thirty years of constant warfare to finally defeat them; although Skanderbeg died in Lezhe undefeated.

  6. This kind of reminds me how the Muslim states kept fighting each other even during the Crusades. Actually, the Christian kingdoms fought each other sporadically too. Really, the concept of cooperating with a foreigner next to you against a foreigner far from you might seem obvious to modern eyes, but it probably didn't look like that in real time. The Muslims at least have an excuse for not uniting under the Crusades. It was actually more of a mere annoyance. Contemporary Arab chronicles called them the "Frankish Wars" and it was a minor footnote to them, a side show compared to the major struggles in the area. The Crusaders never threatened the vital cities near the Nile or Euphrates that severed as economic hubs. It wouldn't be until the 1800s when arabs really cared about them. During the time of the Crusades, unless you were the hapless local being butchered in the capture of Jerusalem, this was just one conflict of many, and not even against the strongest foe. In 1260, the Europeans don't have the excuse of "well the Mongols are just a minor problem" given that the Mongols were much more successful than the Crusaders ever were.

  7. Before the 1st mongol invasion we still had contact with hungarian tribes, who stood in todays Bashkorostan. 400 years after the seven hungarian tribes left Magna-Hungaria we still had info about eachother. After the mongol invasion we never heard about them anymore.

  8. This happens everywhere, during any time. The well-meaning and knowledgeable voices are ignored and the countries these fools are governing are only saved by chance, sometimes a miracle. Many didn't survive. How hard it is to listen? The same can be seen today concerning some aggressive countries, there are intelligent people telling everyone what will happen if they don't react, but they are just ignored.

  9. I am pretty sure that these were not mongols, actually mongols have nothing to do with invasions. Tartars are Turkics, Ozbek khan was from Turkic tribe. USSR actually manipulated history, naming Ghingiz khan a mongol in return for a friendship with Mongolia , when he actually worshiped turkic god- KhanTengri, and spoke turkic eastern dialect. At that time mongols were Buddhists.

  10. Yes, more Mongols series please. its so interesting and inspiring. and please introduce more about Caghadai khanate, which is also very important for the world history, especially very significant for where is todays turkistan, afghanistan, pakistan, and india area.

  11. 15:45 Ah yes, the usual gross oversimplification of warfare that heavy cavalry should beat light cavalry, I mean, what do you expect? The light cavalry is supposed to be monkeys and they would charge right into the heavy cavalry? Yes, they could do that and still win, as the Crusaders, the Mongols, or pre-modern European warfare have proved, more often than not, light cavalry can totally rekt heavy cavalry due to their superior speed and maneuverability (if they know how to use it), also discipline, cohesion and leadership plays a huge part in which body of cavalry would prevail.

  12. Giovanni del Carpine was not alone in his expedition.

    Two Czech and two Polish Franciscans joined Carpine. Brother Štěpán gave up traveling in Ruthenia and only reached Kiev. The brothers Česlav and C. de Bridia were detained on the banks of the Volga, but Benedict of Poland (known as a knight before he became a monk) accompanied Carpine throughout the entire journey to Karakorum and back to Europe, also making a written report of the expedition himself. "De Itinere Fratrum Minorum ad Tartaros"

    Why is he not remembered?

  13. why dont u do more videos on Muslim Invasions? And the atroicies they commited? Honest quesiton. you always seem to omit them. Even talking about crusades, you never mentioned it was a response to the Moorish invasions

  14. I think the whole narrative of the "Mongol Hoards" is drastically overblown. I say this because there is no trustworthy account
    of why the Mongolians disappeared and or what happened to them. Think about it, if they conquered the vast amount of areas that
    historians claim they did, and smashed all the armies that opposed them then what is the answer to my questions? There really
    isn't one. Did they just get home sick and decide to go back home? Did they just sit around and get fat and lazy for a generation
    so that all the armies that were crushed by them could once again be assembled to attack and destroy them? There would have
    been plenty of food and resources to provide for them to flourish. And don't give me that tired old fall back answer, a plague. These
    hoards from the east came from the areas where the plague originated from. So in summary, all the armies that faced them were
    crushed, all the major hubs of transportation and trade and commerce were under their control, vast areas of Europe and elsewhere
    were under their control, they had more than enough food and minerals for weapons and their horses and themselves for centuries.
    Taking all these factors into account, then most, if not all of modern day Europeans should be at least a quarter if not half Mongolian
    by heredity, sir name, appearance, and culture which they most certainly are not. Were there Mongolians armies that defeated European
    armies of long ago? Sure. But were they as gigantic in scope as the history books say? No. I submit that they were used as a boogeyman
    by the West just as the modern day terrorists from the Middle East were used by Western nations to further their strangle-hold on society.

  15. Imagine doing the most arduous, dangerous, and important task at the age of 65 before doubling your efforts to spread the fruits of your labor in hopes of saving Europe… and No One listens. 😒

  16. Not many people mention that Mongols had a conflict with Serbia. During the first raids they plundered Serbia, but later during the rule of Saint King Milutin he defeated their units, who probably weren't numerous like in other campaigns and more or less acted as mercenaries or allies for their vassals. But he defended the country nonetheless and avoided destruction when he sent his maybe illegitimate son who would become king in the future as a hostage. I also think that some Cumans fled to Serbia as well. There are traces of them in the names of some villages.
    So, all in all. Thanks for mentioning that minor event.

  17. I just want everyone in the comments to remember that all the mongols and Genghis were actually nomadic mexicans… Also Hitler, Ataturk and Mohammad were also mexicans 🤣😎

  18. Let's say Viserys Targaryen lands with 40,000 Dothraki screamers at his back. We hole up in our castles. A wise move. Only a fool would meet the Dothraki in an open field. They leave us in our castles. They go from town to town, looting and burning, killing every man who can't hide behind a stone wall, stealing all our crops and livestock, enslaving all our women and children. How long do the people of the Seven Kingdoms stand behind their absentee king, their cowardly king hiding behind high walls? When do the people decide that Viserys Targaryen is the rightful monarch after all?

    Thought this quote was pretty inspired by the real world 13th century.

  19. The Mongols are most overrated people in history. They get allot of credit because they conquered a large empire. But honestly they only accomplished this because their enemies were weak, disunited, or stupid. Their greatest weapon was they could run around the battlefield and shoot arrows and run away. And since most their opponents didn't have either long range missile weapons to out range or had horses fast enough to catch the Mongols. The Mongols sucked at city assaults and naval warfare. They had to force their subject people to fight for them in these endeavors to be successful. When gunpowder came around, the Mongols lost their advantage and where pushed into eventual obscurity where they rest now. A fitting end to a bunch of brutal Barbarians who destroyed great civilizations (Bagdad Caliphate, Song China, Kievan Russia) and left nothing of worth behind. Barbarians in the truest meaning of the word.

  20. so the Europeans mostly doubled down on what they were comfortable with instead of rethinking their military methods. And the advice from a observant priest was worthless to the knights & kings because it was a priest giving it not a warrior. A fine example of ignoring a dangerous problem until it smacks you in the face & even then the "elite" wouldn't listen. Kind of reminds me of the military european thinking during WWI & the beginning of WWII.

  21. I have to disagree, the Hungarian strategy during 2nd Mongol Invasion was the following: people from the country side would seek shelter in the castles with their belongings, animals and as much food as possible, and hide there. Small units of Hungarian soldiers would sortie from the these castles against smaller Mongol foraging and raiding troops, and return after each skirmish behind the safety of their walls. Thus robbing the Mongols from their ability to live off the land. Meanwhile the main Hungarian forces would keep a safe distance from the invaders, but never too far to deny them the ability disperse like they did in 1241

    During the first invasion the Hungarians learned, that the Mongols sustained themselves from foraging and plunder, and that beating the opposing army as soon as possible where their main objective to neutralize any threat to their raiding, sieging and foraging parties. So they adapted accordingly.
    Thus the Mongols were unable to force a major battle or capture any important cities or castles. And plunder was nowhere near to the amount they needed to maintain their army, so they had to retreat, during which the main Hungarian army shadowed them -sources conflict, but it might be possible that some minor engagements between them and the Mongol rearguard occurred -, the local Hungarian forces (consisting manly of Székelys, Saxons and Vlachs) were able to attack them in the mountain passes.

    The Hungarians were well aware, that necessary outside help would never come, and in open battle the Mongols would have the upper hand. So they undercut them in the described way.

  22. Apart from the publication of both Franciscans "De itinere Fratrum Minorum ad Tartaros", there is also a separate description of Mongalorum prepared by Benedictus Polonus (traveling with Carpini) "Relatio fratris Benedicti Poloni".

  23. Mongols used Korean bows and gun powder weapons against the Europeans and introduced gun powder to Europe. One of the biggest mistake and saddest in history.
    Jurchen Jin dynasty first used gunpowder weapons against the mongols but they heavily underestimated the Mongols and got destroyed by the Mongols+Chinese alliance.

  24. European stone castles, more or less social and ethnic peace, scorched earth strategy and guerrilla warfare. This is how Europeans defeated the Mongols. Actually even the 1242 Mongol invasion was a resounding defeat. They set out to conquer Europe and only managed to get Bulgaria as a vassal.


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